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L'avancement des technologies dans l'éducation

De plus en plus, les technologies prennent de l’importance dans nos vies. Nous sommes maintenant habitués de travailler avec elles. Toutefois, ce ne fut pas toujours le cas. Il nous a fallu nous y accoutumer. En ce qui concerne l’éducation, celle-ci a dû beaucoup évoluer suite à l’avancement rapide des technologies. Un avancement qui est loin d’être terminé. En effet, à chaque année, il y a quelque chose de nouveau et d’encore plus performant qui sort. Les enseignants doivent constamment adapter leur enseignement à ces nouvelles technologies. Jusqu’où l’évolution de ces dernières va-t-elle se rendre et qu’elles pourraient bien être les répercussions sur l’éducation de nos jeunes? Personnellement, je pense que l’avancement des technologies permettra aux écoles de mieux instruire leurs élèves. Ceci seulement à la condition que les enseignants réussissent à en faire bon usage. C’est ce dont je vais vous faire part dans ce présent essai. Pour commencer, je présenterai l’éducation au primaire comme elle était avant l’arrivée des technologies. Puis, je décrirai son évolution au cours des années avec l’intégration des technologies dans l’éducation. Dans cette section, je parlerai principalement des impacts de l’arrivée de l’imprimerie, du rétroprojecteur et des ordinateurs dans les salles de classe. Ensuite, je parlerai de comment pourrait devenir l’éducation dans plusieurs années. Pour finir, tout au long de cet essai, je donnerai mon opinion sur les différents énoncés spécifiés précédemment.

L’éducation avant...

Avant la venue du 15e siècle, soit pendant la période du Moyen-Âge, l’éducation avait une forme bien différente que ce que l’on connaît aujourd’hui. En effet, il n’y avait pas d’école à proprement parlé. L’enseignement se faisait chez le maître, pour les garçons, ou chez la maîtresse, pour les filles. L’éducation ne s’étendait pas sur une période aussi longue qu’aujourd’hui. Elle pouvait ne durer que quelques mois pour les familles moins fortunées comme, par exemple, pour les enfants de paysans et d’artisans. Les élèves n’avaient pas de matériel scolaire autre qu’une planche en bois recouverte de cire et un stylet pour écrire dessus. Ensuite, les enfants continuaient leur apprentissage auprès de leurs parents, soit auprès de la mère pour la fille et auprès du père pour le garçon, afin d’en apprendre davantage sur le métier qu’ils devront exercer plus tard. Étant donné qu’il n’y avait pas encore de technologies, l’éducation était très basique et il n’y avait que des cours magistraux. De plus, les maîtres étaient vus comme l’objet du savoir. Dans la classe, le maître avait raison et les élèves avaient tord. Il était presque impossible pour les autres de les contester puisque l’information qui auraient été utile afin de se documenter sur un sujet en particulier n’était pas accessible, soit parce qu’elle n’existait même pas, soit parce qu’elle était dans des livres très rare puisque écrits à la main. À cette époque, l’imprimerie n’était pas encore inventée.

Évolution de l’éducation

Suite à l’arrivée de l’imprimerie au milieu du 15e siècle, l’école commença peu à peu à se transformer. En effet, l’accès à l’information devint un peu plus aisé. Maîtres et élèves pouvaient maintenant trouver plus d’informations sur un sujet donné afin d’accroître leurs connaissances. Toutefois, le maître gardera son statut de centre du savoir et de pouvoir sur l’enfant jusqu’à l’aube de l’an 2000. De plus, l’imprimerie changea l’éducation en permettant aux maîtres et aux élèves d’avoir recourt à du matériel supplémentaire, comme des livres et des manuels scolaires, des grammaires, des livres de sciences et de mathématiques. L’utilisation de ceux-ci devint de plus en plus courante. La planche en bois et le stylet furent remplacés par une ardoise et une craie, puis par un cahier remplis de feuilles vierges et un crayon pour l’élève. Toutefois, les travaux des élèves ne pouvaient pas être très élaborés puisque l’accès à l’information n’était pas toujours facile. Effectivement, bien qu’il y ait eu des bibliothèques dans presque chaque ville, tous les livres n’y figuraient pas. De plus, comme il n’y avait toujours pas d’ordinateurs dans celles-ci, trouver des livres pouvait être décourageant pour les élèves. Comme Mario Asselin l’a spécifié dans L'apprenant comme participant à la construction de contenu, avant, les élèves devaient apprendre leurs leçons par cœur puisqu’il leur était difficile de retrouver ces informations par la suite. Les recherches que les élèves devaient faire n’étaient pas vraiment difficiles. Elles consistaient à trouver certaines informations sur des sujets données qui se retrouvaient dans les livres de classe.

Au milieu du 20e siècle, d’autres innovations beaucoup plus jeunes que l’imprimerie firent surface. Toutefois, il faudra attendre la fin des années 1950 pour voir ces deux innovations utilisés dans les salles de classe. La première des deux inventions dont je vais vous parler dans ce présent paragraphe est le carrousel de diapositives qui permettait de projeter de petites photos sur un écran blanc. De ce fait, l’enseignant peut mettre l’enfant en situation en préparant des photos qu’il aurait prises préalablement. Il sera donc possible de présenter à l’enfant autre chose que la traditionnelle salle de classe par l’intermédiaire de cette invention. J’ai trouvé cette information sur un site que j’ai jugé intéressant. Peu de temps après l’arrivée de cette invention dans les écoles, c’est le rétroprojecteur que nous connaissons sans doute tous très bien pour avoir vu certains de nos enseignants et professeurs l’utiliser qui fait son apparition. Celui-ci a donné la possibilité aux enseignants de préparer à l’avance leur contenu en le mettant sur un transparent, ce qu’ils ne pouvaient pas faire avec leur fidèle tableau noir, tout en pouvant y ajouter des modifications avec la classe au moyen de petits feutres effaçables et de différentes couleurs. Ainsi, les enseignants pouvaient donner à leurs élèves un enseignement plus diversifié.

À partir de la fin des années 1980, les écoles commencent peu à peu à intégrer des ordinateurs dans les salles de classe. Toutefois, leur utilisation est bien limitée. Les ordinateurs étaient très lents et offraient peu de possibilités. L’un des système d’exploitation du moment était MS-DOS. Celui-ci demandait une certaine aisance pour pouvoir l’utiliser puisqu’il marchait sous un système de commandes. Les enseignants qui possédaient un ordinateur dans leur salle de classe ne s’en servaient pas dans leur pédagogie à ce moment là. Les ordinateurs de cette époque, qui coûtaient très cher soit dit en passant (près de 3000$), pouvait gérer un logiciel de traitement de texte. WordPerfect était l’un des plus utilisés. Il était alors possible de faire imprimer un texte taper à la main. Bien sûr, ce n’était pas encore les imprimantes que nous connaissons. Au début, l’imprimante ne pouvait utiliser qu’un seul type de police. Elles étaient peut-être capables de reproduire un texte d’une assez bonne qualité, mais étaient bien piètres en ce qui concerne les illustrations. Sur beaucoup d’ordinateur, Windows remplaça MS-DOS à partir de 1990. Ce qui offrit une interface moins compliqué aux utilisateurs. À partir de 1996, de nombreuses écoles subissent des modifications afin d’avoir accès à Internet. Ceci apporta un changement considérable dans le monde de l’éducation puisque l’information devenait de plus en plus accessible grâce à Internet. À partir de la fin des années 1990, les salles de classe s’équipèrent de plus en plus d’ordinateurs. Certaines classes en possédait deux ou trois pour mettre à la disposition des élèves. Les ordinateurs devinrent même assez populaires dans les maisons bien que son coût soit encore assez élevé. Les sites Web étaient déjà nombreux à cette époque et très diversifiés. Les enseignants purent y trouver de nouvelles idées afin de diversifier davantage leur pédagogie. Certains utilisèrent des logiciels éducatifs avec leurs élèves. Aussi, les ordinateurs furent un élément de motivation pour certains étant donné qu’ils voulaient pouvoir aller sur l’ordinateur, soit pour jouer, soit pour travailler. Je me souviens qu’une de mes enseignantes au primaire nous faisait imprimer des certificats en récompense de nos efforts et cela nous motivait beaucoup.

De nos jours, bien que les ordinateurs soient beaucoup plus performants que lors des années 1990 et du début des années 2000, les enseignants ne les utilisent pas souvent avec les élèves. En fait, les ordinateurs sont plus utilisés dans les travaux de recherche que dans les autres travaux. Ce qui, selon moi, devrait changer. Les enseignants demandent également quelques fois aux élèves de remettre un travail au propre tapé à l’ordinateur. Toutefois, dans certaines écoles, l’utilisation des technologies est plus fréquente. Les élèves du primaire ont recours à un ordinateur portable dans leurs cours. Certains enseignants utilisent même le TBI qui est un tableau blanc interactif. L’utilisation des technologies motive davantage les élèves et peut rendre leurs apprentissages plus significatifs en les mettant dans des «situations réelles».

Dans plusieurs années...

Pour plus tard, j’imagine que les enseignants vont faire plus d’efforts afin d’intégrer les technologies dans leur salle de classe. Un jour, peut-être que tous les enseignants utiliseront un TIB dans leurs cours. Selon moi, ce serait vraiment fantastique. Les élèves ne s’en sentiront que plus motivés. Aussi, les ordinateurs portables deviendront peut-être même un jour le seul matériel essentiel requis pour aller en classe. Ainsi, les manuels scolaires seront des livres numériques. Les élèves pourront alors avoir des livres de l’année. De cette façon, les élèves n’auraient plus recours à de vieux manuels. De plus, lorsque l’enseignant trouve des documents intéressants pour approfondir les connaissances des élèves il peut les mettre en ligne afin qu’ils soient disponibles pour les enfants. Aussi, l’utilisation de logiciels éducatifs par l’enfant pourrait l’aider à mieux comprendre les informations qu’il reçoit et de les mettre en pratique plus aisément. L’enseignant pourrait donner des exercices spécifiques à chaque élève afin de les aider selon leurs besoins.

Pour finir, il est évident que l’éducation a évolué de façon considérable suite à l’avancement de la technologie. Les plus grands changements furent sans aucun doute l’arrivée de l’imprimerie et, plus tard, de l’ordinateur. Tout comme les technologies n’ont pas encore terminé leur avancement, l’éducation n’a pas fini d’évoluer. Cependant, il est important que les enseignants gardent une certaine ouverture d’esprit afin de faire évoluer leur enseignement avec les technologies. C’est probablement parce que les gens ont peur d’avancer dans quelque chose qu’ils ne connaissent pas vraiment que cela prend plusieurs années avant que l’éducation s’adapte aux nouvelles technologies. Je pense que l’utilisation de la technologie dans l’éducation apporte beaucoup à l’élève comme à l’enseignant.

Je, Christina, certifie que j’ai fait tous les efforts possibles afin de publier un travail sans fautes.

Mes sites de références:

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